Research paper: Don Ed Hardy 

Don Ed Hardy:
Who would have ever though that tattoos would have played such an important part in the fashion industry. Something that started off as the symbol of courage and power and at the other end as disgrace of exile and crime.
One of the people who made it big in the art of tattooing is Don Ed Hardy.
Don Ed Hardy was born in 1945 in Costa Mesa, California. He is based in America most famously known for his amazing tattoo designs and more importantly his enormous apparel and accessories brand, Ed Hardy. He graduated from the San Francisco Art Institute with a Bachelor of fine arts in printmaking. Hardy’s professor was one of the most renowned tattoo artist, Sailor Jerry Collins, cause of his accusation Hardy was able to study tattooing in japan in 1973. Soon after hardy settled with his work in tattooing his wife and him started a publication house called “ Hardy mark publications.” Under this marque they published a 5 series book called Tattootime. They published many more books after this one sold out well.[1] Since hardy has studied under Sailor Jerry, his designs are highly similar to the ones of his professor and the other of hardy’s designs have the Japanese touch to it too as he studied those too. Hardy started his practicing his skills since a very young age and his professor would help him out too. He had a tough started since the time he had his first proper studio for tattooing. He is known as the “God Father of modern tattoo.”
In 1977, Ed Hardy opened his first tattoo store “Tattoo City” in San Fransisco. With his outstanding tattoo technique, Ed Hardy successfully opened a new era in tattoo land.
In 1978 the tattoo store was burned down by a big fire, the store had not even lasted for one year. Everything was vanished in one day and Ed Hardy opened a simple store in order to keep his work until 1980. In the meantime the destroyed store had been repaired and reopened.
Hardy opened his second store in 1991 and in 1992 his third store.[2]
After all the hardships he had came a better time for him when he was approached by Christian Audigier who had designed lines for brands like Diesel, Naf Naf, Von Dutch, Levi’s, Kookai and Lee.
“My life has always been in pictures. I’ve been drawing obsessively since the age of three and have always been interested in people’s stories and the stores that pictures tell. Initially the ones that were the most exotic, mysterious or fantastic were what held my interest. Eventually, I came to value subtler kinds of narrative, and I realize that a lot of the important stuff wasn’t necessarily logical or linear or (perhaps) could even properly be called a “story”, but is the communication of something unique, even in its abstract or formal elements. This transmission of specific experience and sensation gives it power. Sometimes the content of the picture is a mystery even to the person who made it, and that’s where it gets good and makes creating things worthwhile. It takes us beyond ourselves and our conscious intentions and moves into the realm of what you could call art. It’s fortunate to be able to maneuver in that realm, and I’ve kept aiming at that, trying to activate things. Tattooing is the medium that allowed me to do that
I took up the practice out of a combination of economic necessity and artistic curiosity. It was an option that would give me both a challenge and an opportunity to be an independent agent and develop its potential as an expressive medium. At the same time, it’s “outsider” status was hugely compelling. Tattooing in the 1960’s was the most formally undeveloped and socially provocative medium I could think of, relegated in the public perception to the underworld of sailors, bikers and criminals. It seemed absurd to me that the tools of tattooing, the pigments, machines and the designs made with them were being used in such a limited fashion. Far-flung sociological and philosophical speculation aside, tattooing is a commercial art in contemporary Western society. I wanted to become successful at the business itself and simultaneously grow as an artist. Happily, these two forced went hand in hand. With the trust and encouragement of many others in the field, as well as legions of clients bringing me their concepts and skins, it has been an amazing and fulfilling journey. This book is an attempt to clarify for myself how it all fits together. Art that somehow feeds back to recognition or resonance in the viewer has gradually become devalued, and this medium has been a way for me to keep that function alive.”[3]
These are some of the words that are said by Don Hardy himself, this pretty much clears why and how he got his interests in the art of tattooing. His aim was to not only earn or make a living out of what he did but to grow and learn more in the at that he practiced, he even wrote his books to connect to the people out there and to keep the function alive
Evolution of form:
The real evolution of the tattoos happened when Don Ed Hardy was approached by the French designer Christian Audigier who wanted to use Don Ed Hardy’s tattoo designs to create an apparels brand. No one but Christian would have made ed hardy have such a big name, he made sure hardy’s brand was worn by all the leading celebrities such as Madonna, Michael Jackson, Sylvester Steelton.
Hardy agreed to the idea of him changing his tattoos to wearable and even make his dream come true which was “ wear your dreams” hardy had this typo on on one of his tattoo which means he wanted everyone to get his tattoo and if they couldn’t permanently get them atleast wear his clothes
The brand was subsequently by extensively licensed< at one point having 70 sub licenses. As time passed by the brand grew and everyone wanted it was flashed at school to malls to even red carpets. Since the brand was doing so well they started producing other products such as lighters, perfumes, shoes, hair styling tools and even condoms.
The ed hardy store was located in san Francisco, new york, los angeles, boston, seattle, Minneapolis, Honolulu, Scottsdale, Tucson, Vancouver, dubai, Johannesburg, Kuwait, kuala lumpur, Bangkok, dehli and Mumbai and even Qatar. Ed hardy as we all know and most used to love was extremely popular for the time peaking at more than $700 million in the gross revenue in 2009 but quickly collapsed in 2010, due to the stores shutting down in different parts of the world. Now hardy has retired from tattooing but he oversees and mentors the artists at his san Francisco studio, Tattoo city. [4]

masters in
Tattooing the Invisible Man, Hardy Marks Publications, 1999


Seminar research paper: Tattoos


Janvi Doshi Section AIntegrative Seminar II 

Faculty – Prarthna Patil

February 5, 2017
Tattoo plays a huge part in the fashion culture. There have been times when tattoos were just décor for the body but now times have changed to when its inspiration is a form of art and even used to create brands.
The word tattoo comes from the Tahitian “tatu” which means “to mark something”. It is apparently guaranteed that tattooing has existed since 12,000 years BC. The motivation behind inking has differed from culture to culture and its place on the course of events. In any case, there are commonalties that win shape the most earliest known tattoos to those being done on college students on Telegraph Ave. in Berkeley.
Tattoos have dependably had an essential part in custom and convention. In Borneo, ladies inked their images on their lower arm showing their specific ability. In the event that a lady wore an image showing she was a talented weaver, her status as prime marriage material was expanded. Tattoos around the wrist and fingers were accepted to ward away disease. All through history tattoos have meant participation in a clan or society. Indeed, even today aggregates like the Hells Angels tattoo their specific gathering image. Television and films have utilized the possibility of a tattoo sign participation in a mystery society in various circumstances. It has been trusted that the wearer of a picture calls the soul of that picture. The savagery of a tiger would have a place with the inked individual. That custom remains constant today appeared by the multiplication of pictures of tigers, snakes, and winged creature of prey.
In recorded history, the earliest tattoos can be found in Egypt during the time of the construction of the great pyramids (It undoubtedly started much earlier). When the Egyptians expanded their empire, the art of tattooing spread as well. The civilizations of Crete, Greece, Persia, and Arabia picked up and expanded the art form. Around 2000 BC tattooing spread to China.[1]
The Greeks utilized tattooing for correspondence among spies. Markings recognized the spies and demonstrated their rank. Romans marked crooks and slaves. This practice is still carried on today. The Ainu individuals of western Asia utilized tatooing to show societal position. Young ladies transitioning were set apart to report their place in the public arena, just like the wedded ladies. The Ainu are noted for acquainting tattoos with Japan where it formed into a religious and stately custom. In Borneo, ladies were the tattooists. It was a social convention. They created outlines showing the proprietors station in life and the tribe he had a place with. Kayan ladies had fragile arm tattoos which looked like silky gloves. Dayak warriors who had “taken a head” had tattoos staring them in the face. The tattoos accumulated regard and guaranteed the proprietors status forever. Polynesians created tattoos to check tribal groups, families, and rank. They conveyed their specialty to New Zealand and built up a facial style of inking called Moko which is as yet being utilized today. There is proof that the Mayan, Incas, and Aztecs utilized inking in the customs. Indeed, even the confined tribes in Alaska working on inking, their style demonstrating it was found out from the Ainu.
In the west, early Britons used tattoos in ceremonies. The Danes, Norse, and Saxons tattooed family crests (a tradition still practiced today). In 787 AD, Pope Hadrian banned tattooing. It still thrived in Britain until the Norman Invasion of 1066. The Normans disdained tattooing. It disappeared from Western culture from the 12th to the 16th centuries.
While inking decreased in the west, it flourished in Japan. At to begin with, tattoos were utilized to check criminals. To start with offenses were set apart with a line over the brow. A second crime was set apart by including a curve. A third offense was set apart by a different line. Together these imprints shaped the Japanese character for “canine”. It shows up this was the first “Three strikes your out” law. In time, the Japanese heightened the tattoo to a tasteful fine art. The Japanese body suit began around 1700 as a response to strict laws concerning prominent utilization. Just sovereignty were permitted to wear lavish attire. Accordingly, the working class decorated themselves with expand full body tattoos. A very inked individual wearing just a loin fabric was viewed as fashionable, yet just in the security of their own home. 
Evolution of tattoos
While it’s not so much comprehended what impelled early man to tattoo their bodies, we do realize that the confirmation of tattoos dates path back to solidified tribesmen and old mummies. Humankind has dependably appeared to have some need, or love, of the tattoo artistic expression.
Many societies all through the ages have utilized hand-poked tattoo systems for their religious and tribal convictions. Certain tribes in Somoa and Borneo utilize tattooing as a transitional experience for the person right up ’til the present time, regarding the greater part of the service and devices of their history. In Japan, a couple ace tattooers still utilize devices whose origination is about as old as the myths and legends of the stories and characters they depict on the skin of their customers old and youthful. Both of these antiquated styles are notwithstanding being passed on and utilized by a couple of the more current era of tattooist today.
When tattooing moved from the old world to Europe and the United States, the period of electric tattooing was conceived. Inking was most prominent in the positions of the military where numerous a solider, mariner, or pilot ended up denoting their skin to remember that time in their lives with a USMC identification, a warship, a hula lady, or a nautical star. While the symbolism was maybe not as rich in authentic symbolism or as individual as one’s family or tribal heredity, the pictures being delineated by the new-age tattooer still remained constant verifiable and creative legitimacy. A considerable lot of these “old school” plans and styles are probably the most famous of today’s tattoo culture. As the years advanced, so did the sorts of customers sitting in the tattooist’s seat.
In 1991, German hikers on the Oztal Alps (near the border between Italy and Austria) discovered the mummified remains of a prehistoric human. Carbon dating would prove that the human, named Ötzi, had been mummified more than 5,300 years ago. While Ötzi was discovered with primitive tools and arrows, his most unique feature was that his body was adorned with no less than 57 tattoos, all the way from his upper neck to his ankles.
Findings like this continuously have proven that tattoos have been a part of human societies since their inception, as parts of rituals and cultures throughout history and across the globe.
Quick forward to 2005. Our general public still held biases against tattoos and, while a few people were getting them all alone, nobody would state tattoos were a piece of popular culture. What changed this? The minute tattoos ventured into society’s spotlight can be pinpointed to a certain occasion: the starting of the main well known tattoo TV appear, “Miami Ink”. An incredible shop on South Beach, “Miami Ink” housed an extraordinary blend of gifted and magnetic tattoo craftsmen. Prior to this show, just the minority of individuals with tattoos realized what within a tattoo studio resembled. Individuals weren’t conscious of the stunning work being done there or to the dynamic identities and different styles of various craftsmen. It made for good TV however, so Miami Ink proprietor, Ami James, connected up with a noteworthy system and ran this unscripted television appear in his shop. It was a tremendous achievement and it changed everything.
Different kinds of tattoos
 1.Classic Americana

[2]These may be the first kind of tattoo you think of, an old-school style defined by bold outlines and the use of similar colors and imagery. They’re closely tied to the ocean and nautical imagery, pinup female figures, fierce predatory animals, or combinations of hearts, roses, and daggers. The style was popularized by Norman “Sailor Jerry” Collins in the 1930s, but is a consistent choice today — shown here by Frankie Caraccioli of Kings Avenue Tattoo.
2. New School

New School tattoos are like a crazy comic book on your body. Jesse Smith‘s work is famous in this category, depicting fabulous imagined worlds full of chaos and very often chariactured animals in vivid color.
3. Japanese

As we showed you in a previous post, there are centuries of history for the art tattooing all over the world. One that has maintained it’s popularity is the Japanese style Irezumi. Tattoo artists still create both traditional and new takes on these classic masterpieces. And it’s a genre particularly known for large images that cover the back, arms, and legs.
4.Black and gray

Jessica Mascitti of LA’s East Side Tattoo shows us great examples of different kinds of work in a genre that can encompass a wide range of styles. Watering down black ink to create a spectrum of shades doesn’t as limited by subject matter, depicting anything and everything realistically in shades of grey, originally do Black and Grey images.

Shane O’Neill shows us how realistic you can get with tattoos with his portraiture, a sub-set of the realism genre (which is just like it sounds — realistic renderings of imagery). Without the black outlines of some of the more classic styles, artists are able to achieve eerily accurate renditions of people both in color and black and grey.
6. Stick and Poke

Artist Slowerblack shows off the possibilities of the stick-n-poke, where the artist uses a single needle to create simple designs. Recently popularized for DIY tattoo-ers, in the hands of a professional this art can go to beautiful levels, characterized by thick and bold lines most often in simple black with small decorative patterns.

Blackwork is originally derived from the original tribal tattoos, made of thick and bold black lines in a variety of geometric shapes. But artists continue to take this genre to new levels, incorporating patterns and imagery derived from all sorts of sources into mesmerizing pieces swirling in different forms around the body, like these from Nazareno Tubaro (who also created the featured image!)

Typically freehanded, Biomechanical tattoos adapt to the unique flow of a person’s body, meant to mimic machinery that could be hidden within the skin. It’s hard to get away from Roman Abrego‘s name when you bring up these bad boys – his alien and mechanical-inspired images covering often the arms and legs of his clients.
9.Realistic Trash Polka

Realistic Trash Polka was created by Germany’s Buena Vista Tattoo Club. Created by Simone Plaff and Volko Merschky, it’s instantly recognizable for it’s collage-like structure, intricate and sampling from printed materials — from photography to hand-writing, paint splashes to type-writing.

The art genre of surrealism gives artists loads of material to work with. The artistic style can change, the subject can change, but as long as the viewer comes out of the experience with that feeling of sublime fantasy, the artist has achieved their purpose. Pictured here are the amazing works of Milanese tattoo artist Pietro Sedda, owner of the shop The Saint Mariner.
How are tattoos more than decoration to the body ?
Tattoos have for some time been viewed as substantially more than simply body decoration. The profound, social, individual, and political centrality of getting inked is a permanent part of body craftsmanship, and a great many people who have experienced the awkward to through and through excruciating system confirm its inborn otherworldly experience. In any case, shouldn’t something be said about tattoos as a type of mending?
Quick forward to the tattoo business of today. A long way from their periphery culture past, tattoos have gone standard, and there’s a specialty recovery of remedial inking where craftsmen explore different avenues regarding adding distinctive substances to the ink. Present day dedicatory tattoo has developed to another level as to passionate mending in the wake of encountering a misfortune. There is a rapidly developing tattoo drift that includes blending the incineration fiery debris of a friend or family member into the ink of a tattoo out of appreciation for the long lost. While we frequently keep individual articles having a place with those we cherish when they pass on, similar to a ring or watch, to make a feeling of proceeded with association, this well known custom is just about the most lasting update we can have.
Past straightforward ornamentation, tattoos have and keep on having social, true to life, remedial, and tribal criticalness. As indicated by tattoo anthropologist Lars Krutak, “the investigation of antiquated and contemporary inking society offers a standout amongst the most significant historical, imaginative and scholarly articulations on the significance of social assorted qualities, human experience and visual correspondence. [3]Tattoos transmit an immense assortment of data about our identity, where we originated fro